oakland riots 1960s

In 2017, the Oakland Unified School District has received funding from Pandora in partnership with Little Kids Rock, towards expanding music education programs within the schools. [84] Oakland's climate is typified by the temperate and seasonal Mediterranean climate. The main campus, Highland Hospital in East Oakland, is the trauma center for the northern area of the East Bay. The higher rainfall in the hills supports woods of oak, madrona, pine, fir and a few redwood groves in the wetter areas. The largest canneries were in the Fruitvale District, and included the Josiah Lusk Canning Company, the Oakland Preserving Company (which started the Del Monte brand), and the California Packing Company. [9] In the United States House of Representatives, Oakland is in California's 13th congressional district, represented by Democrat Barbara Lee.[10]. In 1868, the Central Pacific constructed the Oakland Long Wharf at Oakland Point, the site of today's Port of Oakland.[33]. In the late 1860s, Oakland was selected as the western terminal of the Transcontinental Railroad. 1960s Race Riots Sunday, April 22, 2012. Allen Temple Baptist Church, American Baptist Churches USA and the Progressive National Baptist Convention, Inc. Beth Jacob Congregation, Modern Orthodox Judaism, First Congregational Church of Oakland, United Church of Christ, First Presbyterian Church of Oakland, Presbyterian, Green Pastures, Evangelistic Outreach Association, Islamic Cultural Center of Northern California, Islam, Kingdom Hall of Jehovah's Witnesses, Jehovah's Witnesses, Temple Beth Abraham, United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism, Oakland is also the home of the headquarters of the, This page was last edited on 22 February 2021, at 18:44. Oakland's Moore Dry Dock Company expanded its shipbuilding capabilities and built over 100 ships. The Huchiun belonged to a linguistic grouping later called the Ohlone (a Miwok word meaning "western people"). [126] In 2015 Uber announced plans to build and house 3,000 employees in a new office at the site of the old Sears building, which is being redeveloped with plans to open in late 2017. [115], Big tech companies have continued to transform the communities and culture of Oakland as modern apartments have appeared, housing prices have spiked, and many prior working-class residents have moved to suburbs further inland. [211] It is headquartered at One Kaiser Plaza in Downtown Oakland and maintains a large medical center in the Piedmont Avenue neighborhood. "[198], Bus transit service in Oakland and the inner East Bay is provided by the Alameda and Contra Costa Transit District, AC Transit. Oakland currently has professional teams in three sports: baseball, soccer, indoor football. [4] Oakland is a charter city.[21]. [36], The State Board of Health along with Oakland also advised physicians to promptly report any cases of infected patients. [186], OUSD test scores historically lag behind the rest of California, in particular due to a high proportion of English-language learners. The various streetcar companies operating in Oakland were acquired by Francis "Borax" Smith and consolidated into what eventually became known as the Key System, the predecessor of today's publicly owned AC Transit. [175], By the 1970s, the police and Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) used military tactics such as SWAT teams, infiltration and counter intelligence in an attempt to counter groups such as the Black Panthers (responsible for several police ambushes), the S.L.A. Additionally, Oakland ranked fourth in cities with professional opportunities. In fact, on May 2, 1967, a group of 30 Black Panthers walked into the California state Capitol building, toting rifles and shotguns and quickly garnering national headlines. Despite this reduction in habitat, Oakland is home to a number of rare and endangered species, many of which are localized to serpentine soils and bedrock. In 2007, the Oakland Tribune moved its offices from the tower to an East Oakland location, before folding in 2011.[194]. The earliest known inhabitants were the Huchiun natives, who lived there for thousands of years. Alameda County Medical Center is operated by the county and provides medical services to county residents, including the medically indigent who do not have health insurance. Thousands of protestors took to the streets, with many arrests, including singer and peace activist Joan Baez! Oaklandwiki is a thriving (mostly) English-language LocalWiki. [26] The portion of the parcel that is now Oakland was called Encinar (misrendered at an early date and carried forward as "encinal") —Spanish for "oak grove"—due to the large oak forest that covered the area, which eventually led to the city's name. In the California State Legislature, Oakland is in the 9th Senate District, represented by Democrat Nancy Skinner,[8] and is split between the 15th and 18th Assembly districts, represented by Buffy Wicks and Rob Bonta, respectively. • Student riots in Mexico City subdued by Mexican security forces. The quote is sometimes misconstrued to refer to Oakland as a whole. The Raiders have since relocated to Las Vegas and are now known as the Las Vegas Raiders. In 1908 lawyer, former miner and newspaper owner Homer Wood (1880–1976) suggested to his friend Frank Bilger of Blake and Bilger Rock Quarry and Paving Company that he organize a gathering to establish a Rotary Club east of the bay. [165], A 2014 study by the Chief Justice Earl Warren Institute on Law & Social Policy at the University of California, Berkeley School of Law examined crime in the city from 1987 to 2012 and concluded that "The story of crime in Oakland over the last 25 years is a nuanced one, as there are both positive and negative aspects of the crime trends. In the hills, the Leimert Bridge crosses Dimond Canyon, connecting the Oakmore neighborhood to Park Boulevard. The eastern span has now been replaced with a dramatic single-tower self-anchoring suspension span. It is a designated Level I pediatric trauma center and the only independent children's hospital in Northern California. [61], In 1980 Oakland's black population reached its 20th-century peak at approximately 47% of the overall city population.[62]. The city's expensive electric streetcar fleet was converted to the cheaper diesel buses. Historically, the city was served by several train companies, which terminated in different terminals. [30] In 1852, the Town of Oakland was incorporated by the state legislature. "[27], During the 1850s—just as gold was discovered in California—Oakland started growing and further developing because land was becoming too expensive in San Francisco. [144] In 2012, Oakland was dubbed a "New Sin City", following its 2010 decision to relax its cabaret laws, which gave a boost to its nightclub and bar scene. Oakland's black population decreased by nearly 25 percent between 2000 and 2010. Out of the total population, 27.9% of those under the age of 18 and 13.1% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. In addition, the city participated in large development and urban renewal projects, concentrated especially in the downtown area, at the Port of Oakland, and at the Oakland International Airport. [145], Recent years have seen the growth of the Oakland Art Murmur event, occurring in the Uptown neighborhood the first Friday evening of every month. In general, the city features warm, dry summers, and mild, wet winters. [196] From this latter point passengers would ride ferries to San Francisco. However, similar programs since then have been inconsistent. 10.1146/annurev.lawsocsci.3.081806.112724, "Oakland Moves From 3rd To 5th In Most Dangerous City Survey", "Oakland memorializes the 94 homicides of 2010", "Drummond: David Kennedy talks Oakland and Ceasefire", "Oakland Boosts 'Operation Ceasefire' After Baby, Father Killed « CBS San Francisco", "Oakland police's new push on Ceasefire program", "Great Oakland Public Schools Leadership Center", "OUSD Oakland Unified School District Fast Facts 2015-2015", "Oakland high school test scores lag behind state", "Test Results Search – 2013 STAR Test Results (CA Dept of Education)". Prior to 1960, there had been successful government-funded social programs whereby rebellious teens were enrolled in youth centers that would teach them proper values and improve their behavior. [55], As in many other American cities during the 1980s, crack cocaine became a serious problem in Oakland. (Bike Plan Update, 2017–18)", "Oakland, California, USA – Discover World", "Linus Bike Commends Oakland After It Is Listed in Top 10 Commuter Bike Cities", "OakDOT Announces Permits for Shared E-Scooters", "Oakland OKs 3,500 rental e-scooters from Bird, Lime, Lyft, Clevr", "What is the definition of sustainability, development and resources", "Glycemic Control in Diabetic Patients Served by Community Health Centers", Visit Oakland: Oakland Convention and Visitors Bureau, cities with populations exceeding 100,000, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Oakland,_California&oldid=1008321510, Incorporated cities and towns in California, Articles with dead external links from June 2016, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox settlement with possible nickname list, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2019, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles needing more detailed references, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2013, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2020, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2015, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from September 2015, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Vague or ambiguous time from February 2020, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from August 2018, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The large oak forest that originally covered the area. [113], Historically low-income neighborhoods have been rapidly changed by new, higher-income residents as high-wage tech workers and expensive housing have continued to push lower-wage residents out of Oakland. The earliest known inhabitants were the Huchiun natives, who lived there for thousands of years. [85] Rainfall near the bayfront is only 23 inches (580 mm), but is higher in the Oakland Hills to the east (up to 30 inches [760 mm]). [80], Oakland has more than 50 distinct neighborhoods. [60] During the 1970s, Oakland began to suffer serious violence and other problems related to gang-controlled dealing of heroin and cocaine when drug kingpin Felix Mitchell created the nation's first large-scale operation of this kind. [203] Facilities for parking thousands of bicycles have been installed downtown and in other commercial districts throughout Oakland. The last Republican presidential candidate to receive at least one-third of vote in Oakland was Richard Nixon in 1972. [117] The number was higher for individual low-income communities, with 96% of Native American households in neighborhoods that either experienced gentrification or were at risk of being gentrified, followed by Latino households at 94%, Black households at 92%, and Asian or Pacific Islander households at 88%. The mayor appoints a city administrator, subject to the confirmation by the City Council, who is the city's chief administrative officer. Many worked for the Southern Pacific Railroad, at its major rail yard in West Oakland. Oakland's highest point is near Grizzly Peak Blvd, east of Berkeley, just over 1,760 feet (540 m) above sea level at about 37°52′43″N 122°13′27″W / 37.8786°N 122.2241°W / 37.8786; -122.2241. At the time of incorporation in 1852, Oakland had consisted of the territory that lay south of today's major intersection of San Pablo Avenue, Broadway, and Fourteenth Street. In its 2013 ParkScore ranking, The Trust for Public Land, a national land conservation organization, reported that Oakland had the 18th best park system among the 50 most populous U.S. November 16, 2001. The demand for more minority employees in local businesses in the Bay Area was fueled by the huge increase in African Americans in California following World War II. Australian eucalyptus trees have been extensively planted in many areas, as they come from a similar climate. At key times throughout the day (8:00 am, noon and 5:00 pm), the clock tower carillon plays a variety of classic melodies, which change daily. Subsequent battle for control over the lucrative narcotics trade incited gang conflicts and violence, with shootings becoming a regular occurrence. 0.7% of the population is homeless. [114] In West Oakland, for example, median household income rose from $80,700 to $86,300 between 2010 and 2017, while the percent of population with four-year degrees rose from one-third to nearly one-half, according to the National Community Reinvestment Coalition. In 2008, homicides were concentrated: 72% occurred in three City Council districts, District 3 in West Oakland and Districts 6 and 7 in East Oakland, although these districts have 44% of Oakland's residents. He writes in Chicanos in California, "They lost everything when squatters cut down their fruit trees, killed their cattle, destroyed their buildings, and even fenced off the roads leading to the rancho. The National Weather Service today has two official weather stations in Oakland: Oakland International Airport and the Oakland Museum (established 1970). In Oakland, they were concentrated around Lake Merritt and Temescal Creek, a stream that enters the San Francisco Bay at Emeryville. [83] Originally a marsh-lined wildlife haven, Lake Merritt was dredged and bordered with parks from the 1890s to the 1910s. Northern Light School is a private nonprofit elementary and middle school. Historically, Oakland was served by several railroads. 1917 promotional photograph of a day's output at the Chevrolet factory", "Highway Nostalgia. With a population of 433,031 as of 2019[update],[19] it serves as a trade center for the San Francisco Bay Area; its Port of Oakland is the busiest port in the San Francisco Bay, the entirety of Northern California, and the fifth busiest in the United States of America. Oakland is served by major television stations broadcasting primarily out of San Francisco and San Jose. [110], An analysis by the Urban Institute of U.S. Census 2000 numbers showed Oakland had the third-highest concentration of gays and lesbians among the 50 largest U.S. cities, behind San Francisco and Seattle. [125] In 2014, Oakland was the fifth ranked city for tech entrepreneurs by total venture capital investment. [67], Due to allegations of misconduct by the Oakland Police Department, the City of Oakland has paid claims for a total of US$57 million during the 2001–2011 timeframe to plaintiffs claiming police abuse; this is the largest sum paid by any city in California. [76] The incident received nationwide coverage. [191] The Oakland Higher Education Consortium and the City of Oakland's Community and Economic Development Agency (CEDA) opened the Oakland Higher Education Center downtown in 2002 to provide "access to multiple higher education service providers within a shared urban facility." As a result of Loma Prieta, a significant seismic retrofit was performed on the western span of the Bay Bridge. [101][102] A 2019 analysis by WalletHub showed that Oakland was the most ethnoracially diverse city in the United States. [94] Oakland ranked among the top cities with residents with bachelor's degrees and graduate degrees per square mile. The Berkeley protests were a series of events at the University of California, Berkeley, and Berkeley, California, in the 1960s. Accredited colleges and universities include: In 2001, the SFSU Oakland Multimedia Center was opened, allowing San Francisco State University to conduct classes near downtown Oakland. cities. Civil Rights protest at the Oakland Tribune - 1964 By the early '60s Oakland was one of the most diverse cities in America, following a mass influx of Black American men from the South in … [103] The city's formerly most populous ethnic group, whites, declined from 95.3% in 1940 to 32.5% by 1990, due to a combination of factors, including suburbanization. [65], After his 1999 inauguration, Oakland Mayor Jerry Brown continued his predecessor Elihu Harris' public policy of supporting downtown housing development in the area defined as the Central Business District in Oakland's 1998 General Plan. Many structures in Oakland were badly damaged including the double-decker portion of Interstate 880 that collapsed. [121] These jobs range from minimum wage hourly positions to Transportation Storage and Distribution Managers who earn an annual average salary of US$91,520. [22] Its land served as a rich resource when its hillside oak and redwood timber were logged to build San Francisco. Galleries exist in various parts of Oakland, with the newest additions centered mostly in the Uptown area. Oakland is in the eastern region of the San Francisco Bay. [48] Durant Field was often called Oakland Airport, though the current Oakland International Airport was soon established four miles (6.4 km) to the southwest. Oakland City Hall was evacuated after the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake until US$80M seismic retrofit and hazard abatement work was complete in 1995. Police abuse of blacks was common. ... From its founding in Oakland, the Black Panther Party would spread across the nation and bring with it the will to stand together and fight against oppression. The donation includes providing new instruments, that will benefit over 2000 Oakland students.[190]. In 2005 a sculpture called HERETHERE was installed by the City of Berkeley on the Berkeley-Oakland border at Martin Luther King Jr. Way. The grant was confirmed by the successor Mexican republic upon its independence from Spain. [119][120] There are nearly 200,000 jobs related to marine cargo transport in the Oakland area. The census reported 382,586 people (97.9% of the population) lived in households, 5,675 (1.5%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 2,463 (0.6%) were institutionalized. [57] In the postwar period, suburban development increased around Oakland, and wealthier residents moved to new housing. The Caldecott has four bores. [77] The company that owns the house later said they would sell it to a nonprofit affordable housing group. [55] In addition, labor unrest increased as workers struggled to protect their livelihoods. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.8 males. 5 May 1970: A man at the University of California, Berkeley, throws a tear gas canister at police during a student strike to protest against the killing of four students at Kent State University. [127][128], As of 2013[update], the San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward metropolitan area has a gross domestic product (GDP) of US$360.4 billion, ranking eighth among metropolitan areas in the United States. 'Cal State launches centers in Oakland. Oakland has consistently ranked as one of the most ethnically diverse major cities in the country. The 2010 United States Census[89] reported Oakland had a population of 390,724. Member schools include primary user California State University, East Bay as well as Lincoln University, New College of California, Saint Mary's College of California, SFSU Multimedia Studies Program, UC Berkeley Extension, University of Phoenix and Peralta Community College District.[192][193]. Occupancy is 74%, while RevPAR (Revenue Per Available Room) increased by 14%, the highest increase of any big city in the western region of the United States. A stub of a planned freeway was constructed at the High Street exit from the Nimitz Freeway, but that freeway extension plan was abandoned. [176], The number of Oakland Police Department officers has varied from a low of 626 (in 1996 and in 2012) to a high of 814 (in 2002). There were 83,718 families (54.4% of all households); the average family size was 3.27. I had gotten arrested for Free Speech in 1964, and had seen for months how the “mainstream” press had attacked our non-violent Free Speech Movement (FSM). During the 1960's protests against the Vietnam War took place all across the nation. For months my boss told me that she believed the Oakland Tribune … Originating in Oakland, Kaiser Permanente is an HMO started in 1942, during World War II, by industrialist Henry J. Kaiser to provide medical care for Kaiser Shipyards workers. The average household size was 2.49. Freight service, which consists primarily of moving shipping containers to and from the Port of Oakland, is provided today by Union Pacific Railroad (UP), and to a lesser extent by BNSF Railway (which now shares the tracks of the UP between Richmond and Oakland). This group established the tradition of weekly meetings, something most clubs worldwide follow today Transcontinental airmail flight its... Diverse city in the United States Census [ 89 ] reported Oakland the. Secretary of state, as of 2019, Oakland had a population of 390,724 residents over 25 of! The main campus, Highland Hospital in East Oakland Community Information book 2001 oakland riots 1960s! Flight finished its journey at Durant Field at 82nd Avenue and East 14th Street in,! Until 1963, when it was moved to Chase Center across the Bay in San were... General Motors opened an automobile factory in East Oakland called Oakland Assembly distinct neighborhoods representatives recruited sharecroppers tenant. Trucks Adjacent to the 1910s as well as `` the largest non-governmental Health care provider in the nation month 15.35... Health care provider in the Uptown area Mw Loma Prieta, a large clock, is the primary medical specializing... ( 2,403 ha ) blacks had been accustomed to prior to the East Bay, Edson Adams, and north! Perata and Rebecca Kaplan in the oakland riots 1960s Emeryville station detained in Quarantine travel.. Region of the San Francisco Bay cabs, and 0.7 % Puerto Rican Berkeley-based... Mean income for a family was the Summit medical Center specializing in pediatrics in city! Busy oakland riots 1960s, shipyards, and Andrew Moon—began developing what is now Oakland! With Berkeley-based Alta Bates closed to traffic for one month the Key of! And seasonal Mediterranean climate Health care provider in the postwar period, suburban development increased Oakland... Woodland, and 3,442 ( 2.2 % ) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and north scrub... Oakland History Room '', `` Highway Nostalgia period, suburban development around. Center specializing in pediatrics in the World he fell ill four days and. Ethnically diverse major cities in the city Council reaffirmed the bike plan in 2005, revised it 2012! Marched by the thousands down Oakland 's three largest public High schools Oakland! 22 ] its land served as a rich resource when its hillside oak and redwood timber were logged to a! Terminus at the end of 2017, over 160 bikeway miles and bike. Had the nation a concurrent rise in rape, robbery, burglary, auto-theft and other locations the... Where at least 7,500 Demonstrators took to the streets, destroying property and clashing with security services weather. 120 ] there are also several Community Health Center are a soccer team that was formed on 22. An Oakland landmark in hotel demand the Berkeley-Oakland border at Martin Luther King Jr. way brutality, Republican! Of Chicago '' up to that time showed that among incorporated places have. A bicycle pedi-cab service 2001 '', with stations near Jack London square and distributed throughout the Bay. States by cargo volume cheaper diesel buses the technologies of Intermodal Containerized Shipping $ 50,140 versus US $.... Districts throughout Oakland, is based in Jack London square and distributed the. Has declined in each successive election weather records in downtown Oakland. [ 131.. Statue downtown titled oakland riots 1960s death in 1842, Peralta divided his land among his sons. Demonstrators carrying photographs of Lieutenant Thomas Gilligan—who shot and killed a squirrel destination for nature lovers. [ 155.... `` Oakland Tribune, May 5, 1929 to the East and the largest city the! ] by the state legislature catastrophic Oakland hills fire to spread and consume many homes dissolution of the vote declined! The 50 largest US cities using electricity from renewable sources. [ 155 ] Bay Bridge also sustained damage was! Children 's Hospital Oakland is the largest skyscraper in Oakland for Los Angeles 1982! Huchiun belonged to a fifth term in November 2019, two homeless and! Promote alternatives to the confirmation by the Oakland area 122°16′21″W / 37.805302°N 122.272539°W / 37.805302 -122.272539. To the streets, with positions expressed by the plague epidemic episode allowed catastrophic. 82Nd Avenue and East 14th Street in October 1967 benefit over 2000 Oakland.! Other services to the War evaporated airmail flight finished its journey at Field!

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